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Exerc Sci > Volume 31(2); 2022 > Article
Exercise Science 2022;31(2): 159-167.
The Association between Maternal Folate Status and Childhood Obesity-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Junechul Kim1,2 , Bo-Eun Yoon3 , Jinho Park1 , Eun Hye Kwon1 , Kyungun Kim4 , Sukho Lee1
1Department of Counseling, Health, and Kinesiology, College of Education and Human Development, Texas A&M University-San Antonio, San Antonio, USAA
2Graduate School of Physical Education, Dankook University, Yongin, korea
3Department of Molecular Biology, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea; 4School of Business Administration, University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, USA
Correspondence  Sukho Lee , Tel: +1-210-784-2537, Email: slee@tamusa.edu
Received: April 2, 2022;  Accepted: May 10, 2022.  Published online: May 31, 2022.
*Junechul Kim and Bo-Eun Yoon contributed equally to this work.
ABSTRACT
The Association between Maternal Folate Status and Childhood Obesity-Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysiPURPOSE:
Maternal nutrition plays a crucial role in fetal growth and lifelong health outcomes. Folate is an essential methyl donor in the epigenetic programming of offspring. This review and meta-analysis was conducted to compile the evidence reported thus far to identify associations between maternal folate status and childhood obesity.
METHODS:
A keyword/reference search was performed in EBSCOhost and Web of Science databases. A CMA program was used for a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect of maternal folate status on childhood obesity in offspring and to examine the influence of moderating variables on the overall effect.
RESULTS:
Better maternal folate intake was associated with a lower risk of childhood obesity: the overall effect size (ES; Hedges’ g) was 0.168 (95% CI=0.075 to 0.260, p<.001; small effects; cf., Cohen’s criteria). Moderator analysis revealed that the ≥Q statistic for the age group was statistically significant (Qb=4.730, df=1. p=.030; heterogeneity of ES). In offspring <7 years and >7 years, the ES was 0.277 (95% CI=0.151, 0.404) and 0.089 (95% CI=-0.025, 0.202), respectively. The study design was a statistically significant variable (Qb=4.310, df=1. p=.038; heterogeneity of ES). In cohort studies, ES was 0.251 (95% CI=0.135, 0.367), whereas in randomized controlled trial group, ES was 0.062 (95% CI=-0.073, 0.197).
CONCLUSIONS:
Maternal folate intake significantly affects childhood obesity, and the effect of maternal folate status is stronger in children younger than 7 years.
Key words: Folate, Folic acid, Child obesity, Meta-analysis, Review
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